Notes: The 2020 onset of the COVID-19 pandemic may have impacted policies, procedures, and data collection activities. Additionally, stay-at-home orders and school closures likely impacted the volume and type of law-violating behavior by youth that came
to the attention of law enforcement. This publication was prepared by Charles Puzzanchera, National Center for Juvenile Justice, under grant #2019-JX-FX-K001 awarded by the National Institute of Justice with funding support from OJJDP. July 2022.